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  • Butylated Hydroxytoluene

    LKT Labs

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is commonly used as a food and cosmetics additive; it exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. BHT may also display neuroprotective benefit, decreasing ethanol-induced brain damage and neurodegeneration and suppressing activation of NF-?B activation…

  • 3-tert-Butyl-4-Hydroxyanisole

    LKT Labs

    3-Tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (3-BHA) is one component of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This compound is commonly used as a food additive; it exhibits antioxidative and anticancer activities. In leukemia cells, 3-BHA decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibits mitochondrial oxidative…

  • Cholesterol

    LKT Labs

    Cholesterol is a sterol component of animal cell membranes that is required for membrane fluidity. Cholesterol is also the precursor to most steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D compounds. Additionally, cholesterol is involved in vesicular transport and nerve conduction, and shows some…

  • Biapenem

    LKT Labs

    Biapenem is a carbapenem ß-lactam antibiotic. Like other carbapenems, biapenem binds penicillin-binding proteins to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis. Biapenem exhibits broad spectrum antibacterial activity and is clinically used to treat respiratory and urinary tract infections. Biapenem…

  • Berberine Chloride

    LKT Labs

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in a variety of plants, including barberry, goldenseal, Oregon grape, California poppy, and the Amur cork tree. Berberine fluoresces under ultraviolet light and is often used to stain heparin in mast cells. Berberine displays many beneficial effects,…

  • Caffeine

    LKT Labs

    Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid found in coffee, tea, and many other plant sources; it exhibits stimulant, bronchodilatory, anti-asthma, vasoconstrictive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-aging, and anti-fibrotic activities. Caffeine activates adenosine receptors and inhibits…

  • Baicalin

    LKT Labs

    Baicalin is a flavone found in Scutellaria that exhibits antiviral, antioxidative, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities. Baicalin inhibits prolyl oligopeptidase. Baicalin also inhibits neuraminidase, preventing influenza infection. In…

  • Amphotericin B

    LKT Labs

    Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal compound that increases levels of ROS and forms pores or channels in membranes by binding membrane sterols. Amphotericin B induces iNOS, activates astrocytes, and increases expression of IL-1ß, TNF-a, BDNF, and GDNF, displaying potential neuroprotective…

  • Aflatoxin B1

    LKT Labs

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins found in foods and livestock feeds that were initially produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxin B1 is the most cytotoxic of all aflatoxins; it inhibits DNA synthesis and induces cell cycle arrest.

  • Acetylsalicylic Acid

    LKT Labs

    NSAID and COX-1/2 inhibitor used to decrease inflammation. It inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time by decreasing levels of thromboxane A2. Chronic administration decreases risk of cancer and cardiovascular events.

  • L-Carnitine Hydrochloride

    LKT Labs

    L-Carnitine is an endogenous quaternary ammonium compound required for fatty acid transport; it is often given as a dietary supplement. The L-isomer is active, exhibiting anti-osteoporotic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective activities. In a clinical setting, L-carnitine administration increases…

  • L-Carnitine

    LKT Labs

    L-Carnitine is an endogenous quaternary ammonium compound required for fatty acid transport; it is often given as a dietary supplement. The L-isomer is active, exhibiting anti-osteoporotic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective activities. In a clinical setting, L-carnitine administration increases…

  • 4-bromo-A23187

    LKT Labs

    Non-fluorescent halogenated A23187 analog and Ca2+ ionophore. It induces formation of endothelial microvesicles, increasing leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing cell viability. It also induces mast cell degranulation and stimulates the acros

  • 2B-(S)

    LKT Labs

    2B-(S) is a 16-amino acid peptide conjugated to biotin.

  • Caffeic Acid

    LKT Labs

    Caffeic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid found in coffee, argan oil, Eucaplyptus, Salvinia, and Phellinus; it exhibits antioxidative, anti-diabetic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-metastatic, and anticancer activities. Caffeic acid inhibits activity of a-amylase and a-glucosidase. This compound…

  • Apamin

    LKT Labs

    Apamin is a peptide bee venom toxin that acts as an antagonist at K+ channels. Apamin inhibits small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK2/3, IK) channels; it blocks the pore region, preventing K+ ion transport and lowering the threshold for action potential development. Apamin…

  • Bisdemethoxycurcumin

    LKT Labs

    Bisdemethoxycurcumin, like its parent compound curcumin, exhibits anticancer, antioxidative, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities. Bisdemethoxycurcumin inhibits Wnt signaling by inhibiting WIF-1 promoter demethylation and inhibits DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), inducing…

  • Celecoxib

    LKT Labs

    Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that inhibits COX-2; it exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, and anti-metastatic activities. Celecoxib is clinically used to treat arthritis, acute pain, and ankylosing spondylitis. In hepatoma cells, celecoxib decreases the…

  • Aflatoxin M2

    LKT Labs

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins found in foods and livestock feeds that were initially produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxin M2 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B2; it inhibits DNA synthesis and induces cell cycle arrest.

  • Aceclofenac

    LKT Labs

    Aceclofenac is a diclofenac analog that exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Aceclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that somewhat selectively inhibits COX-2; it is clinically used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.…

  • Apigenin

    LKT Labs

    Apigenin is a flavonoid found in various plant sources that exhibits anticancer, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, cognition enhancing, and neuroprotective activities. In gastric cancer cells, apigenin inhibits cell proliferation, decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, increases expression of…

  • Anabasine Hydrochloride

    LKT Labs

    Anabasine is an alkaloid originally found in species of Nicotiana; it is a structural isomer of nicotine. Anabasine inhibits aromatase and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and may produce a depolarizing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) block. Anabasine can also be used as a clinical biomarker…

  • Ambroxol Hydrochloride

    LKT Labs

    Ambroxol is a bronchial expectorant that also exhibits antioxidative activity. Ambroxol stimulates the ciliary beat frequency and increases mucous secretion in the lung and trachea. In clinical settings, ambroxol increases levels of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, decreasing oxidative stress…

  • Trans-Anethole

    LKT Labs

    Trans-anethole is a phenylpropene derivative found in many essential oils, including anise oil. Trans-anethole is commercially used as an insecticide and flavorant. This compound exhibits neuromodulatory, anxiolytic, antioxidative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities.…

  • Chloroquine Diphosphate

    LKT Labs

    Chloroquine is an aminoquinoline antimalarial that is clinically used to treat malaria. Chloroquine’s anti-parasitic activity stems from its ability to bind heme, resulting in disruption of membrane function and cell lysis. Chloroquine also displays antiviral, immunosuppressive, and anticancer…

  • Cisplatin

    LKT Labs

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based cross-linking agent that exhibits anticancer chemotherapeutic activity. Cisplatin induces crosslinks between guanine bases on DNA; it is clinically used to treat various forms of cancer. In lung cancer cells, cisplatin decreases phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and FOXO3a…

  • Cetrimide

    LKT Labs

    Cetrimide is a mix of quaternary ammonium salts that exhibits antiseptic and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities. Cetrimide acts as a cationic detergent, altering the mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing pore formation in membranes. Cetrimide bromide inhibits H+ ATP synthase, inducing…

  • Aflatoxin M1

    LKT Labs

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins found in foods and livestock feeds that were initially produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxin M1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1; it inhibits DNA synthesis and induces cell cycle arrest.

  • Angiotensin II (3-8), Human

    LKT Labs

    Angiotensin II (AT II) is a peptide produced from AT I by angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE). AT II binds the AT II type 1 (AT1) receptor, stimulating GPCRs in vascular smooth muscle cells and increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels; this results in contraction and vasoconstriction, increasing blood…

  • Angiotensin II, Human

    LKT Labs

    Angiotensin II (AT II) is an endogenous peptide produced from AT I by angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE). AT II binds the AT II type 1 (AT1) receptor, stimulating GPCRs in vascular smooth muscle cells and increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels; this results in contraction and vasoconstriction,…

  • Bergenin

    LKT Labs

    Bergenin is a trihydroxybenzoic acid glycoside found in Bergenia and other plant sources. Bergenin exhibits immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, antimalarial, analgesic, antinociceptive, antioxidative, anti-diabetic, anti-metastatic, anticancer chemotherapeutic, and chemopreventive…

  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole

    LKT Labs

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) exhibits antioxidative and anticancer activities. BHA is commercially used as a food additive or preservative, as its free radical scavenging ability stabilizes free radicals and prevents food spoilage. BHS also increases activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in…

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