Biologically Active Small Molecules

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LKT Labs Biologically Active Small Molecules

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  • Celecoxib

    LKT Labs

    Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that inhibits COX-2; it exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, and anti-metastatic activities. Celecoxib is clinically used to treat arthritis, acute pain, and ankylosing spondylitis. In hepatoma cells, celecoxib decreases the…

  • Aceclofenac

    LKT Labs

    Aceclofenac is a diclofenac analog that exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Aceclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that somewhat selectively inhibits COX-2; it is clinically used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.…

  • Aflatoxin B1

    LKT Labs

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins found in foods and livestock feeds that were initially produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxin B1 is the most cytotoxic of all aflatoxins; it inhibits DNA synthesis and induces cell cycle arrest.

  • Ambroxol Hydrochloride

    LKT Labs

    Ambroxol is a bronchial expectorant that also exhibits antioxidative activity. Ambroxol stimulates the ciliary beat frequency and increases mucous secretion in the lung and trachea. In clinical settings, ambroxol increases levels of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, decreasing oxidative stress…

  • Trans-Anethole

    LKT Labs

    Trans-anethole is a phenylpropene derivative found in many essential oils, including anise oil. Trans-anethole is commercially used as an insecticide and flavorant. This compound exhibits neuromodulatory, anxiolytic, antioxidative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities.…

  • Chloroquine Diphosphate

    LKT Labs

    Chloroquine is an aminoquinoline antimalarial that is clinically used to treat malaria. Chloroquine’s anti-parasitic activity stems from its ability to bind heme, resulting in disruption of membrane function and cell lysis. Chloroquine also displays antiviral, immunosuppressive, and anticancer…

  • Cisplatin

    LKT Labs

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based cross-linking agent that exhibits anticancer chemotherapeutic activity. Cisplatin induces crosslinks between guanine bases on DNA; it is clinically used to treat various forms of cancer. In lung cancer cells, cisplatin decreases phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and FOXO3a…

  • Caffeine

    LKT Labs

    Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid found in coffee, tea, and many other plant sources; it exhibits stimulant, bronchodilatory, anti-asthma, vasoconstrictive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-aging, and anti-fibrotic activities. Caffeine activates adenosine receptors and inhibits…

  • Apigenin

    LKT Labs

    Apigenin is a flavonoid found in various plant sources that exhibits anticancer, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, cognition enhancing, and neuroprotective activities. In gastric cancer cells, apigenin inhibits cell proliferation, decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, increases expression of…

  • Butylated Hydroxytoluene

    LKT Labs

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is commonly used as a food and cosmetics additive; it exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. BHT may also display neuroprotective benefit, decreasing ethanol-induced brain damage and neurodegeneration and suppressing activation of NF-?B activation…

  • Cetrimide

    LKT Labs

    Cetrimide is a mix of quaternary ammonium salts that exhibits antiseptic and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities. Cetrimide acts as a cationic detergent, altering the mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing pore formation in membranes. Cetrimide bromide inhibits H+ ATP synthase, inducing…

  • Aflatoxin M1

    LKT Labs

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins found in foods and livestock feeds that were initially produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxin M1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1; it inhibits DNA synthesis and induces cell cycle arrest.

  • Angiotensin II (3-8), Human

    LKT Labs

    Angiotensin II (AT II) is a peptide produced from AT I by angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE). AT II binds the AT II type 1 (AT1) receptor, stimulating GPCRs in vascular smooth muscle cells and increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels; this results in contraction and vasoconstriction, increasing blood…

  • Angiotensin II, Human

    LKT Labs

    Angiotensin II (AT II) is an endogenous peptide produced from AT I by angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE). AT II binds the AT II type 1 (AT1) receptor, stimulating GPCRs in vascular smooth muscle cells and increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels; this results in contraction and vasoconstriction,…

  • Bergenin

    LKT Labs

    Bergenin is a trihydroxybenzoic acid glycoside found in Bergenia and other plant sources. Bergenin exhibits immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, antimalarial, analgesic, antinociceptive, antioxidative, anti-diabetic, anti-metastatic, anticancer chemotherapeutic, and chemopreventive…

  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole

    LKT Labs

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) exhibits antioxidative and anticancer activities. BHA is commercially used as a food additive or preservative, as its free radical scavenging ability stabilizes free radicals and prevents food spoilage. BHS also increases activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in…

  • Aflatoxin G2

    LKT Labs

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins found in foods and livestock feeds that were initially produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxin G2 is cytotoxic; it inhibits DNA synthesis and induces cell cycle arrest.

  • Aripiprazole

    LKT Labs

    Aripiprazole is a second generation atypical antipsychotic that also exhibits neuromodulatory, antidepressant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, cognition enhancing, and antioxidative activities. Aripiprazole acts as a partial agonist at D2 receptors and 5-HT1A receptors and as an antagonist at 5-HT2A…

  • (+)-Catechin

    LKT Labs

    Catechin is a flavanol originally found in Camilla and other plant sources; it exhibits antioxidative, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-ulcerative, neuroprotective, neuromodulatory, anticancer chemotherapeutic, and chemopreventive activities. Catechin increases life span in Caenorhabditis…

  • Arvanil

    LKT Labs

    Arvanil is an agonist at transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels and cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors. Arvanil exhibits antidepressant, hypertensive, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and anticancer activities. Arvanil decreases immobility time in vivo in the forced…

  • Benzo[a]pyrene

    LKT Labs

    Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) originally found in coal tar, cigarette smoke, and wood smoke. Metabolites of this compound bind DNA and induce mutations. Benzo[a]pyrene is highly carcinogenic and is used in research models to induce carcinogenesis and tumor formation.…

  • Berberine Chloride

    LKT Labs

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in a variety of plants, including barberry, goldenseal, Oregon grape, California poppy, and the Amur cork tree. Berberine fluoresces under ultraviolet light and is often used to stain heparin in mast cells. Berberine displays many beneficial effects,…

  • AK-7

    LKT Labs

    AK-7 is an inhibitor of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2); sirtuins are considered class III histone deacetylases (HDACs). AK-7 exhibits neuroprotective activity, decreasing brain atrophy and improving motor function and survival in animal models of Huntington’s disea

  • Aristolochic Acid B

    LKT Labs

    Aristolochic acid B is a carcinogenic compound found in Aristolochia and Radix that has commonly been used in traditional Chinese medicine.

  • N-Acetyl-S-(N'-phenylthiocarbamoyl)-L-cysteine

    LKT Labs

    N-Acetyl-S-(N’-phenylthiocarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (PITC) is a cysteine conjugate of N-acetyl-phenylisothiocyanate. Isothiocyanates are typically found in plants of the Brassicaceae family, including broccoli, cabbage, and radish. Isothiocyanates are best known for their antioxidative, anticancer…

  • Acitretin

    LKT Labs

    Acitretin is an orally bioavailable retinoid that displays anti-inflammatory activity and is used clinically to treat psoriasis. Acitretin is a metabolite of etretinate that displays more optimized pharmacokinetic parameters. This compound activates all retinoic acid receptor subtypes…

  • Arenobufagin

    LKT Labs

    Arenobufagin is a bufanolide steroid found in the Argentine toad Bufo arenarum. This compound exhibits anticancer chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic properties, but is also cardiotoxic, inhibiting cardiovascular Na+/K+ pumps. In cellular models, arenobufagin induces autophagy and apoptosis,…

  • Azithromycin Dihydrate

    LKT Labs

    Azithromycin is an azalide macrolide antibiotic derived from erythromycin. Azithromycin binds the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting protein translation. Azithromycin displays antibacterial, anti-fibrotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In epithelial cells, azithromycin inhibits the…

  • L-(+)-Ascorbic Acid

    LKT Labs

    L-Ascorbic acid is a vitamin C compound that can be found in many food and plant sources. L-Ascorbic acid exhibits antioxidative benefit and reducing activity; in vitro, it can act as a prolyl hydroxylase cofactor. Grade; ≥98%

  • Adenosine Triphosphate Disodium Hydrate

    LKT Labs

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) disodium is clinically used to inhibit reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction during percutaneous coronary intervention; it also improves left ventricular function in clinical settings. ATP itself is a coenzyme and unit of cellular energy. ATP is required for…

  • Cafestol Acetate

    LKT Labs

    Cafestol is a diterpene initially found in brewed, unfiltered coffee that exhibits anti-angiogenic, anticancer, chemopreventive, neuromodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and hyperlipidemic activities. Cafestol inhibits proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, potentially through decreasing…

  • A-type Natriuretic Peptide (1-28), rat

    LKT Labs

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiomodulatory peptide that binds the natriuretic peptide receptor type A (NPR-A), increasing levels of cGMP and activating cGMP-dependent kinases. ANP exhibits vasodilatory/hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic activities, increasing perfusion and…

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