Biologically Active Small Molecules

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LKT Labs Biologically Active Small Molecules

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  • Chrysin

    LKT Labs

    Chrysin is a flavone/flavonoid initially found in Passiflora, Oroxylum, and Pleurotis; it is also a byproduct found in propolis. Chrysin exhibits anti-estrogenic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, neuroprotective, cognition enhancing, antioxidative, anti-metastatic, anticancer chemotherapeutic, and…

  • Castanospermine

    LKT Labs

    Castanospermine acts as an inhibitor of N-glycosylation, inhibiting O-GlcNAcase, resulting in immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. In leukocytes and endothelial cells, castanospermine decreases expression of cellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1, ICAM-2, L-selectin, LFA-1a,…

  • Butylated Hydroxytoluene

    LKT Labs

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is commonly used as a food and cosmetics additive; it exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. BHT may also display neuroprotective benefit, decreasing ethanol-induced brain damage and neurodegeneration and suppressing activation of NF-?B activation…

  • Biotin

    LKT Labs

    Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin (vitamin B7) that may be found in many foods but is also administered as a dietary supplement. Biotin is a coenzyme involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoleucine, and valine; it also plays a role in gluconeogenesis. Biotin may be found attached to lysine…

  • Catharanthine base

    LKT Labs

    Catharanthine is an alkaloid found in Catharanthus that is a chemical precursor in the synthesis of vinca alkaloids such as vinblastine and vincristine. Catharanthine displays weak anti-mitotic activity, binding tubulin poorly. Catharanthine exhibits anti-parasitic, vasodilatory, and…

  • Amoxicillin

    LKT Labs

    Amoxicillin is a ß-lactam penicillin antibiotic that exhibits antibacterial efficacy against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Amoxicillin inhibits peptidoglycan polymerization through binding of penicillin binding proteins, inhibiting cell wall synthesis.

  • Bupivacaine

    LKT Labs

    Bupivacaine is an amino amide anesthetic that decreases current amplitude and inhibits whole cell K+ currents in Ca2+-activated (BK/SK) K+ channels and N-type voltage-gated (Kv1/shaker and Kv3 KCNA/KCNC) K+ channels. Bupivacaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na+ channels and tandem pore domain…

  • Cefotaxime Sodium

    LKT Labs

    Cefotaxime is a third generation β-lactam cephalosporin antibiotic. Cefotaxime exhibits antibacterial efficacy against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, inhibiting penicillin binding proteins to prevent peptidoglycan synthesis and bacterial cell wall formation. Cefotaxime is also…

  • Carvedilol

    LKT Labs

    Carvedilol is an a1- and ß1/2-adrenergic receptor antagonist used to treat congestive heart failure; its inhibitory action at adrenergic receptors slows heart rhythm, decreasing force, pressure, and cardiac workload. Carvedilol also inhibits release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and…

  • Capsaicin, natural

    LKT Labs

    Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels that was originally found in peppers of the Capsicum genus. Capsaicin exhibits analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anticancer chemotherapeutic activity. Capsaicin also displays bronchoconstrictive activity…

  • Bongkrekic Acid

    LKT Labs

    Bongkrekic acid is an antioxidative compound that inhibits mitochondrial respiration by preventing the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT); it suppresses transport of ADP/ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane, decreasing oxidative stress. Grade: ≥98%

  • Biapenem

    LKT Labs

    Biapenem is a carbapenem ß-lactam antibiotic. Like other carbapenems, biapenem binds penicillin-binding proteins to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis. Biapenem exhibits broad spectrum antibacterial activity and is clinically used to treat respiratory and urinary tract infections. Biapenem…

  • 3-tert-Butyl-4-Hydroxyanisole

    LKT Labs

    3-Tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (3-BHA) is one component of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This compound is commonly used as a food additive; it exhibits antioxidative and anticancer activities. In leukemia cells, 3-BHA decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibits mitochondrial oxidative…

  • Agomelatine

    LKT Labs

    Agomelatine is a melatonin MT1/2 receptor activator that also inhibits 5-HT2C receptors. Agomelatine displays antidepressant, anxiolytic, and hypnotic characteristics and is currently being examined as a marketable antidepressant. Agomelatine improves

  • Cetrimide

    LKT Labs

    Cetrimide is a mix of quaternary ammonium salts that exhibits antiseptic and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities. Cetrimide acts as a cationic detergent, altering the mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing pore formation in membranes. Cetrimide bromide inhibits H+ ATP synthase, inducing…

  • ß-Carotene

    LKT Labs

    ß-Carotene is a red-orange terpene pigment originally found in various plants and fruits; it is a prodrug for vitamin A. ß-Carotene exhibits antioxidative, cytoprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anti-obesity activities. ß-Carotene is used in research models to…

  • Benzalkonium Bromide

    LKT Labs

    Benzalkonium is a quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant that exhibits antimicrobial activity. Benzalkonium is clinically used as a disinfectant; it displays antibacterial activity by inducing dissociation of lipid membrane bilayer components and allowing cellular leakage. Benzalkonium is more…

  • Caffeic Acid

    LKT Labs

    Caffeic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid found in coffee, argan oil, Eucaplyptus, Salvinia, and Phellinus; it exhibits antioxidative, anti-diabetic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-metastatic, and anticancer activities. Caffeic acid inhibits activity of a-amylase and a-glucosidase. This compound…

  • Chondroitin Sulfate, chicken

    LKT Labs

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a polyanionic sulfated glycosaminoglycan that displays anti-arthritic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. CS is an endogenous component of the extracellular matrix of connective tissues and is responsible for their resistance and elasticity. CS is often…

  • Anisomycin

    LKT Labs

    Anisomycin is an antibiotic initially produced by Streptomyces that retains no antibacterial activity. Anisomycin exhibits neuromodulatory and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities. Anisomycin inhibits peptidyl transferase in the 80S ribosome, suppressing protein synthesis. In animal models,…

  • Allicin

    LKT Labs

    Allicin is an thiocyanate found in garlic; it exhibits a wide variety of properties, including anticancer, antioxidative, antihypertensive, anti-arrhythmic, anti-parasitic, and anti-diabetic activities. In vitro, allicin binds cellular nucleic acid, primarily nitrogenous bases and phosphate…

  • Berberine Chloride

    LKT Labs

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in a variety of plants, including barberry, goldenseal, Oregon grape, California poppy, and the Amur cork tree. Berberine fluoresces under ultraviolet light and is often used to stain heparin in mast cells. Berberine displays many beneficial effects,…

  • Biopterin

    LKT Labs

    Biopterin is an endogenous pterin coenzyme that acts as a cofactor for amino acid hydroxylases that produce neurotransmitters and bind NOS to stimulate NO release.

  • Aflatoxin M2

    LKT Labs

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins found in foods and livestock feeds that were initially produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxin M2 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B2; it inhibits DNA synthesis and induces cell cycle arrest.

  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (1-10), human

    LKT Labs

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a peptide derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) processed and secreted in the pituitary gland. ACTH binds and activates melanocortin-2 (MC2) receptors, stimulating cortisol production in the adrenal cortex. ACTH exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory…

  • Acepromazine Maleate

    LKT Labs

    Acepromazine is a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic agent related to chlorpromazine. Acepromazine maleate is primarily used in veterinary field as a sedative and antiemetic, although it has previously been used as an antipsychotic in humans. Acepromazine acts as an antagonist at D1/2 and…

  • Chromium Picolinate

    LKT Labs

    Chromium picolinate is clinically used to decrease fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Chromium picolinate exhibits anti-hyperlipidemic, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic activities. In high-fat diet-fed rats, chromium picolinate decreases plasma lipid levels and platelet aggregation. In…

  • Cholesterol

    LKT Labs

    Cholesterol is a sterol component of animal cell membranes that is required for membrane fluidity. Cholesterol is also the precursor to most steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D compounds. Additionally, cholesterol is involved in vesicular transport and nerve conduction, and shows some…

  • D,L-Aminoglutethimide

    LKT Labs

    D,L-Aminogluthethimide is an inhibitor of aromatase and adrenal steroid synthesis that exhibits immunosuppressive and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities. This compound is used to treat breast cancer and Cushing’s disease.

  • Baclofen

    LKT Labs

    Baclofen is a GABA derivative that acts as an agonist at GABA-B receptors; it is commonly used in animal models to examine the effects of GABAergic neurotransmission in a variety of fields, including substance dependence, spasticity, pain, and feeding behavior. Baclofen exhibits analgesic,…

  • Aflatoxin B2

    LKT Labs

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins found in foods and livestock feeds that were initially produced by species of Aspergillus. Aflatoxin B2 is cytotoxic; it inhibits DNA synthesis and induces cell cycle arrest.

  • 7-Aminoactinomycin D

    LKT Labs

    7-Aminoactinomycin D (7AAD) binds DNA sequences and is used in cellular assays to measure apoptosis and phagocytosis.

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