The history of teeth cleaning agents actually goes back thousands of years. Toothpaste as we know it today however is a comparatively recent development. In this activity, students will investigate several properties of toothpaste samples, provided in the kit, including presence of fluoride, pH, abrasiveness, and foaming ability. As a second activity, students will use the included materials to create their own toothpaste. Kit contains enough materials for 5 groups. Teacher’s Manual and Student Study Guide copymasters are included. Aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)* Disciplinary Core Ideas: PS1.A; PS1.B Performance Expectations: MS-PS1-2; MS-PS1-3 Cross Cutting Concepts: Patterns; Structure and Function Engineering Practices: Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information Kit Includes: 10mL Hydrochloric Acid 50mL Glycerin 10g Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 10g Gum, Arabic 50g Calcium Carbonate 3 tubes Toothpaste 1 Pkg/20 Universal Indicator Strips 1 Pkg/20 Fluoride Test Strips 5 Acetate Sheets 15 Polystyrene Test Tubes 15 Graduated Plastic Pipettes DOT Info: Small quantity exemption 173.4 THIS PACKAGE CONFORMS TO 49 CFR 173.4 for domestic highway or rail transport only *”Next Generation Science Standards” is a registered trademark of Achieve. Neither Achieve nor the lead states and partners that developed the Next Generation Science Standards was involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Respirable crystalline silica, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information go to http://www.P65Warnings.ca.gov.