Biologically Active Small Molecules

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Biologically Active Small Molecules

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  • Bromophenol Blue

    Cayman Chemical

    Commonly used as a pH indicator, a color marker in agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and a dye to detect proteins and nucleic acids (absorbance at 610 nm), particularly when staining living tissues.

  • Nitrocefin

    Cayman Chemical

    A chromogenic cephalosporin substrate commonly used to detect β-lactamases in bacteria and other microbes.

  • Ellagic Acid

    Cayman Chemical

    A polyphenolic antioxidant that is abundant in many fruits, vegetables, plant bark, and peels; has anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and organ-preserving properties; blocks methylation of H3R17 by CARM1 without significantly altering histone acetylase or DNA methyltransferase activity.

  • L-Ascorbic Acid 2-phosphate (magnesium salt)

    Cayman Chemical

    A long-acting ascorbic acid derivative that stimulates collagen expression and formation and is used in human cell culture; included in media to enhance the survival of human embryonic stem cells or drive osteogenic differentiation in human adipose stem cells and in human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells.

  • Quercetin

    Cayman Chemical

    A flavonoid compound found in the bark and rinds of many plants and fruits.

  • VUF11207 (trifluoroacetate salt)

    Cayman Chemical

    A potent CXCR7 receptor agonist.

  • a-Truxillic Acid

    Cayman Chemical

    Can be formed by the dimerization of two molecules of α-trans-cinnamic acid; significantly blocks inflammatory pain while having little effect on neurogenic pain, as indicated by the formalin test in mice.

  • Alloxan Monohydrate

    LKT Labs

    Alloxan is an oxygenated pyrimidine and toxic analog of glucose. Alloxan destroys ß cells and is used in research models to induce diabetes. This compound does not affect human cells.

  • SB-242084 (hydrochloride)

    Cayman Chemical

    An antagonist of the 5-HT2C receptor (pKi = 9.0), with at least 100-fold more selectivity over other 5-HT, dopamine, or adrenergic receptors; brain penetrant with significant anxiolytic activity; used extensively in animal research.

  • Caffeic Acid

    LKT Labs

    Caffeic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid found in coffee, argan oil, Eucaplyptus, Salvinia, and Phellinus; it exhibits antioxidative, anti-diabetic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-metastatic, and anticancer activities. Caffeic acid inhibits activity of a-amylase and a-glucosidase. This compound…

  • HDAC6 Inhibitor

    Cayman Chemical

    A potent and selective inhibitor of HDAC6 (IC50 = 36 nM) that poorly blocks other HDAC enzymes; cell permeable, inhibiting the acetylation of tubulin in cells with an IC50 value of 210 nM.

  • Gallic Acid

    Cayman Chemical

    A trihydroxybenzoic acid that demonstrates antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH• and HO• (IC50s = 9.4 and 191 μM, respectively) and inhibiting microsomal lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.51 μM).

  • (-)-Epicatechin

    Cayman Chemical

    A 2R,3R stereoisomer of catechin; a powerful antioxidant; inhibits COX-1 (IC50 = 3.2 μM); at 100 µM, induces apoptosis in human adenocarcinoma PC-9 cells and stimulates the inhibition of TNF-α release from BALB-c/3T3 cells treated with epigallocatechin gallate.

  • Citrinin

    Cayman Chemical

    A mycotoxin found as food contaminants that causes mycotoxic nephropathy in livestock and Balkan nephropathy and yellow rice fever in humans; induces apoptosis, blocks tubulin polymerization, and disrupts mitotic spindle assembly.

  • 14,15-Leukotriene C4

    Cayman Chemical

    A unique LT with weak contractile activity on both guinea pig ileum and pulmonary parenchyma compared to 5-LO-derived LTs; increases vascular permeability of human endothelial cell monolayers with similar potency to that of 5-LO-derived LTs.

  • F-Amidine (trifluoroacetate salt)

    Cayman Chemical

    Inhibits PAD4 activity (IC50 = 21.6 μM) as well as PAD1 and PAD3 activity (IC50s = 29.5 and 350 μM, respectively); cytotoxic to HL-60, MCF-7, and HT-29 cancer cell lines (IC50s = 0.5, 0.5 and 1 μM, respectively).

  • Kuromanin (chloride)

    Cayman Chemical

    A natural anthocyanin that scavenges superoxide anion radicals (IC50 = 69 µM) and protects neurons from oxidative stress; inhibits the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 (IC50 = 6.3 µM), preventing the metabolism of NAD+ and NADP+.

  • Araguspongin B

    Cayman Chemical

    An antagonist of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate at its carboxy terminus.

  • EPZ011989

    Cayman Chemical

    A selective, orally bioavailable EZH2 inhibitor with Ki values that are less than 3 nM for wild type and Tyr646 mutant of EZH2; demonstrates significant tumor growth inhibition in a mouse xenograft model of human B cell lymphoma.

  • 5(S)-HpETE Lipid Maps MS Standard

    Cayman Chemical

    5(S)-HpETE is a monohydroperoxy polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) produced by the action of 5-LO on arachidonic acid. It is metabolized to leukotriene A4 (LTA4), a key intermediate in the formation of LTs. 5(S)-HpETE (1 µM) mediates the induction of the proto-oncogene c-fos in TNF-stimulated…

  • DPPH

    Cayman Chemical

    A cell-permeable, stable free radical that is commonly used to evaluate the ability of compounds to act as free radical scavengers or hydrogen donors and to measure the antioxidant activity of tissue extracts; followed by color change from purple (absorbance at 515-528 nm) to yellow.

  • JC-1

    Cayman Chemical

    A membrane-permeable cationic dye that is used to study mitochondrial integrity in the context of cellular apoptosis; changes fluorescence characteristics with alteration in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, a very early event in apoptosis.

  • Caffeine

    LKT Labs

    Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid found in coffee, tea, and many other plant sources; it exhibits stimulant, bronchodilatory, anti-asthma, vasoconstrictive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-aging, and anti-fibrotic activities. Caffeine activates adenosine receptors and inhibits…

  • YM-58483

    Cayman Chemical

    A potent inhibitor of calcium release-activated calcium channels in lymphocytes (IC50 = 100 nM); also inhibits lung IL-4 and CysLT generation in animal models of asthma.

  • GM 6001

    Cayman Chemical

    A potent, reversible broad spectrum inhibitor of zinc-containing proteases; inhibits thermolysin and elastase, both with Ki values of 20 nM; inhibits MMP-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -12, -13, -14, -16, and -26 with Ki or IC50 values between 0.1 and 10 nM; inhibits ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM12, and ADAM17 at…

  • Acepromazine Maleate

    LKT Labs

  • Prolyl-glycyl-proline Peptide

    Cayman Chemical

    Peptide sequence: PGP PGP is a tripeptide molecule and an established biomarker for COPD and CF. PGP functions as a neutrophil chemoattractant and is derived from the proteolytic cleavage of collagen in the extracellular matrix by a multistep cascade.

  • Prostaglandin F2ß

    Cayman Chemical

    9β-hydroxy stereoisomer of PGF2α; much less active than PGF2α in antifertility and bronchoconstrictor activities; exhibits bronchodilating activity in guinea pigs and cats and antagonizes the bronchoconstrictor activity of PGF2α.

  • Itraconazole

    Cayman Chemical

    An antifungal agent that acts as an inverse agonist to disrupt Hh signaling (IC50 = 0.8 μM); treatment at 100 mg/kg twice per day has been shown to suppress the growth of medulloblastomas from a Ptch+/-p53-/- mouse allograft model.

  • Pentadecanoic Acid

    Cayman Chemical

    A 15:0 saturated fatty acid found in the milk fat of ruminants that is used as a biological marker for the intake of dairy fat in the assessment of metabolic risk factors.

  • Primary Eicosanoid HPLC Mixture

    Cayman Chemical

    This mixture contains the primary COX products produced by most mammalian tissues. Contents: Prostaglandin D2, Prostaglandin E2, 6-keto Prostaglandin F1α, Prostaglandin F2α, and Thromboxane B2 (100 µg each).

  • Bafilomycin B1

    Cayman Chemical

    A selective, reversible inhibitor of V-ATPases in mammalian, plant, or fungal cells with an IC50 value in the 4-400 nM range; at 100 nM, the related bafilomycin A1 blocks V-ATPase-mediated acidification of lysosomes during autophagy, preventing protein degradation.

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